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March 13 2016


Welding Processes for Fabrication

Quenching and Aging Furnace for Aluminum Alloy
In industry a lot of the materials are fabricated to the desired shapes usually by one of many four methods, casting, forming, machining and welding. Selecting a specific technique is determined by different factors which might include shape and also the sized the component, precision required, cost, material and its particular availability. Sometimes it is very easy to just use a single way to attain the desired object. However, more often it is possible to use a choice relating to the processes designed for making the conclusion product. In the latter case economy plays the decisive role to produce a final choice.

Cantilever pay off/take up
Casting is probably the oldest known technique of giving shapes to metals and alloys. When found suitable, it is the shortest route in the ore for the product and usually essentially the most economical. With these days techniques have been developed to cast almost all metals in addition to their alloys but still there are specific specific materials that have very superior casting properties, for example grey iron.


After casting followed the forming process where the metals in addition to their alloys receive desired shapes from the application of pressure, either by sudden impact like the truth of hammer blows or by slow kneading action like hydraulic presses. Mechanical working of the metal below its recrystallisation temperature is called 'Cold Working' understanding that accomplished above this climate is referred to as 'Hot Working'. Both cold and hot working (and forming) is practised extensively in the market.


Oahu is the process of giving the required shape to a certain material by treatment of extra or unwanted material by cutting as chips. The cutting tool materials are by necessity harder and stronger as opposed to material to be cut. The machining processes commonly employed are turning, milling, drilling, shaping, planning, reaming, boring etc. Through lathes and milling machines were chosen for reference to watch making even just in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries but many of theses processes were introduced into the high volume industries in their present forms to make stream engine parts within the late nineteenth century but attended of aging in our century.


Welding since it is normally understood today is fairly a fresh corner among the fabrication process through smith forging to become listed on metal pieces was practised and before Christ. Through there are numerous of more developed welding process but arc welding with coated electrodes is still most widely used welding process throughout the world.

Currently different welding machine intended for different welding process like arc welding machine, MIG welding machine, TIG welding machine, welding rectifier, spot welding machine, plasma cutting machine and also portable welding machine like inverter welding machine (IGBT welding).

Arc welding in its present form appeared on industrial scene in 1880's. Through you'll find conflicting claims about the inventor of this process but very often it can be caused by a Russian named Slavianoff who's claimed to possess patented it in 1881. Arc welding machine, however, wasn't accepted for fabrication of critical components till about 1920 where time coating for electrodes have been beautifully shaped. However, the demand for large scale production of heavy things like ships, pressure vessels, construction of bridges and stuff like that provided the essential impetus for welding into the future old enough and also the Wwii firmly established becoming the main fabrication process.

Welding which is a process of joining two or more elements of material (s) through offers a permanent join but does normally impact the metallurgy with the components. Therefore, it's usually accompanied by post weld heat treatment (PWHT) for some of the critical components.

Most materials could be welded by one process or the other. However, many are better to weld than these. To check this ease in Welding a term "Weldability" is usually used. Weldability of an material is determined by various factors like the metallurgical changes that occur because of welding, modifications in hardness in and around the weld, gas evolution and absorption, extent of oxidation, along with the effect on cracking tendency in the joint. Dependant on these factors plain low carbon steels hold the best weldability amongst metals. Quite often materials rich in castability most often have low weldability.

Welding process trusted on the market include oxy-acetylene, manual metal arc or shield metal arc (SMAW), submerged arc welding (SAW), metal inert gas (MIG), tungsten inert gas (TIG), thermit welding and cold pressure welding. These types of processes have particular fields of influence like resistance welding is liked by the car industry, thermit welding for joining rails in situ, MIG welding is very fitted to welding of low carbon steel structures as also welding of stainless steels and aluminium, TIG welding is much more popular with aeronautical and nuclear industries, SAW welding for ship building, cold pressure welding by food processing industry, and the like. However, SMAW or stick electrode welding and oxy-acetylene welding processes include the general purpose processes with a wide range of applications.

Some of the typical applications of welding are the fabrication of ships, pressure vessels, automobile bodies, off-shore platforms, bridges, welded pipes, sealing of nuclear fuel and explosives etc.

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